THE GEOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS OF THE EMERGENCE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (1918): A BRIEF OVERVIEW
Two Russian revolutions of 1917 were the turning points that shaped the development of Transcaucasia leading first to the separation of the region from Russia and then to the emergence of three independent states: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. However, it was not only revolutionary processes within Russia and the ensuing civil war that determined the independence of the Transcaucasia, but also the clash and combination of interests of a number of regional and extra-regional states։ Ottoman Empire, German Empire, Great Britain, Soviet power, and White army in Southern Russia. The main goal of this research is to reveal the combination of those geopolitical conditions, which led to the creation of a new state called “Azerbaijan” in the Eastern Transcaucasia. In the article are examined the following issues: the political approaches of Muslims, the Caucasian invasion of Turkish army and the declaration of Azerbaijan’s independence, Baku as a key to real independence or destruction. Overall, it is important to discuss the purpose and legality of naming the newly formed state after the historical name of the territory that is a constituent part of another state.
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MIGRATIONS IN THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND (the Mushki Problem)
Any discussion of the ethnic and political history of eastern Asia Minor, particularly the Upper Euphrates area after the disintegration of the Hittite Empire should be studied in close relationship with the Mushki problem. Here this ethnic element was considerably active on both sides of the Euphrates during the XII-VIII centuries BC, which is well traced even in Northern Mesopotamia. In the article is discussed the problem of these tribes, their possible impact on the political and cultural history of Asia Minor and the Armenian Highland. These key problems are of utmost importance for the reconstruction of the history of the region. The Mushki had played the same role here as, for example, the so-called "Dorians" in Homeric and Classical Greece, Aramaeans in Neo-Assyrian Empire, etc., which until now remains fairly underestimated. The wide geographical area where in different sources appears the term Mushki (also in Western Asia Minor and in the Balkans) indicates that we deal with different ethnic groups, though probably related to each other culturally and maybe linguistically.
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THE FEMALE FIGURES AND PARTICIPANTS OF THE ARMENIAN LIBERATION MOVEMENT IN THE MEMOIRS OF VARDAN OF KHANASOR
Since the 80s of the 19th century, Armenian women and girls played an active role in the Armenian liberation movement against the Ottoman despotism. Based on the memoirs of one of the most prominent figures of the liberation movement, Vardan of Khanasor (Sargis Mehrabyan, 1867-1943), the article presents the women and girls, who fought against the Ottoman despotism almost equally with men. In his memoirs, he presents the women and girls of the Province of Salmast in Northern Iran, and the Van Province, who helped the Hajduks with all their might. Vardan recalls teachers Mariam Makaryan and Satenik Ohanjanyan, who also held cultural events by organizing various circles for women and girls. Among the feminine persons from the Province of Van, Vardan of Khanasor focuses on Zaruhi Teroyan, who was sentenced by the Turkish authorities to seven years in prison for her active liberation activities.
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THE ARMENIAN-GEORGIAN RELATIONS DURING THE FALL OF KARTLI-KAKHETI KINGDOM (According to Georgian Sources and Georgian Contemporary Historiography)
The article presents the process of annexation of Eastern Georgia to Russia. The study of the relations between the Armenian and Georgian peoples has always been one of the most important trends of Georgian historiography. During the long- term absence of independent statehood, various parts of the Armenian people found themselves within the borders of neighboring states and were forced to live there following the laws of these states. In this regard, the events of the last quarter of the 18th century were no exception. Since the second half of the 17th century, the liberation expectations of the Armenian people had mainly been associated with the Russian Empire. This was due to the new political process that Russian Empire adopted after the annexation of Georgia. Thus, the matter of Georgia’s accession to Russia was closely associated with the future of Armenia. This is the reason we discuss the matter of Georgia’s annexation to Russia in detail, as it was a turning point for the Russian government and makes the leaders of the Armenian liberation movement face difficult task: that is what will be the future of Armenia.
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THE QUESTION OF THE SUPPLY OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION TO THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA IN 1918-1920
Until now, there have been superficial, incomplete and one-sided, sometimes politicized references to the Armenian-British military-political relations and British support in terms of military assistance and the supply of weapons and ammunition to the Republic of Armenia in 1918-1920, as well as in terms of the professional training of officers of the Armenian army. All this has left the study of the problem incomplete. There were blank pages that needed to be covered, as well as to offer rethinking, new historical and in-depth approaches. In this context, in the Armenian-British military-political relations and the British military-political mission in the Transcaucasus, there were both individual positive phenomena and cumulative pro-imperialist and pro-British phenomena that need a new assessment, revealing, in particular, the so-called Armenian-friendly British cabinet officials, as well as, in particular, purely imperialist officials, on the one hand, considering military and political figures who have a certain positive attitude towards Armenia, such as Oliver Baldwin of Bewdley, as well as Captain J. Gracie, who knows Armenian and has a positive attitude towards Armenia, Colonel Cl. Temperley. The activities and steps, on the contrary, of V. Thomson, D. Shuttleworth and the purposeful actions of others are sharply anti-Armenian, pro-Azerbaijani - pro-Turkish in their nature, as a result of which the Republic of Armenia suffered significantly, relying on its faithful allies. Different sides of the problem, some facts and details can be found in the books by R. Hovhannisyan, G. Galoyan, Arts. Hovhannisyan, as well as other sources. In the works of contemporaries and state politicians Al. Khatisyan, S. Vratsyan and other statesmen, there is factual selective material, the authors of which, as well as in memoirs, for the most part, are dominated by the approach of proofreading realities and facts, due to which the truth is presented incompletely or distorted, depending on the party and political affiliation of these people and the interests of which country they served or what rank they had in world processes, their possible influence. For example, the Armenian political forces that collaborated with the Young Turks and Al. Parvus or with the main characters of the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 - V. Lenin, L. Trotsky and others. It is also obvious that the Armenian-British military-political ties and a new assessment of the military support of the Republic of Armenia, the activities of military-political mission of Britain in Transcaucasus should be covered with a deep consideration of geopolitical factors, focusing on the short existence of the Armenian statehood, its losses in the Turkish-Armenian war in the autumn of 1920 and the deepest causes of the fall of the Republic of Armenia. This is important because in 1918-1920 Armenia never showed any results in the military sphere, not without the participation of Great Britain, an ally of Armenia, with its incomplete, untimely and insufficient military assistance, and as for the rest powers, they did not show significant interest in this issue, as the oil and socio-political interests of these countries and the same England had other priority. The former “Entente ally” of Great Britain and rival Russia also chalked up its contribution to the above mentioned, which, after the fiasco by the “efforts” of the world powers in 1917, by superhuman efforts in the late 1919 and early 1920s, gradually came to its senses, as a result of which both sides turned the issue Armenia’s support in just a tool to fight against each other, and eventually came to a consensus to control the fate of Armenia by mutual agreement.
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SOLUTION OF THE ARMENIAN QUESTION ACCORDING TO V. D. PLETNYEV (On the eve of the World War I)
On March, 1914 Professor of Petersburg’s military-juridical academy, colonel, journalist, publicist, public figure Vladimir D. Pletnyev (1878–1954), arrives in Transcaucasus where in hall of the Tiflis Royal theatre he gave a lecture called “The Armenian Question and Europe”. He lectured on the same theme in Yerevan, Alexandropol, Kars, Batum and Baku, too.
According to the press reports V. Pletnyov had comprehensively studied the Armenian Question, the conditions of the Armenian land, the past and the present of the Armenian people. In accordance with it, he spoke about the Armenian Question, the phases of its development, the benefits and positions of Russia, England, Germany and Turkey connected with that question and then concluded, that only Russia and the Russian people can give a helping hand to the culture-creating people of Օld East and save them from the massacre and extermination.
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Philosophy and Law1
THE PROBLEM OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN MATTHEOS MAMURYAN՛S POLITICAL CONCEPTION
19th century Armenian prudence is valued as a result of self-awareness and self-reflection of national existence. Evidence of this is the philosophical-political problem of the thinkers of the time, the goal of which is the preservation of the nation’s living foundations as a guarantee of national sovereignty. Historically, libertarianism has become an important factor in the political self-organization, statehood and culture formation of Armenians. Mattheos Mamuryan (1830-1901), a Western Armenian liberal-conservative figure, publicist, political scientist, is distinguished by his original interpretation of these problems. His conception is built on the basis of considerations about the national life (being) and the identity of the nation (“inherent essence”).
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Demography and Governance1
STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The strategy is the philosophy of the organization, which expresses its competitive goals, priorities of resource distribution and actions, and the validity of the strategy is significantly determined by the methodology of its development, as well as the way, i.e. the level of intellect and leadership style of the chief executive of the organizational structure - the leader, as the first figure of making managerial decisions. The next administrative decision after the adoption of the strategy by the corresponding authorized bodies is the approval of the organizational structure of the administration, which must take into consideration certain requirements: correspond to the implementation of certain strategic goals of the organization, professional and industry division of labor, characteristics of rational bureaucracy, formulated by M. Weber, to be flexible and adaptable in the conditions of changes at high rates of scientific and technological processes, to ensure optimization of the administrative apparatus.
One of the features of public administration is that, in addition to the above mentioned requirements, it is necessary to attach significant importance to the first level of the historically formed division of public labor, as well as the core of the long-term strategy of the state - the mission of ensuring the necessary level of the population’s well-being and the country’s security.
Substantive and juridical-administrative relations between the strategy and the organizational structure are regulated by the provisions of the current legislation taking into consideration that the structure is the environment for the implementation of the adopted strategy.
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Foreign Sources and Authors About Armenia and Armenians1
TRAVELS IN THE THREE GREAT EMPIRES OF AUSTRIA, RUSSIA, AND TURKEY, Vol.I, London, 1838
Charles Boileau Elliott was an English travel writer. After retiring from the military service in the Bengal Horse Artillery he then occupied different religious offices in England. possessions His extensive diaries present the political, social, and economic conditions of several territories of what is now Austria, Russia, Hungary, Prague, Slovenia, Crimea, Macedonia and Turkey. The excerpt from his diary is a detailed account of religious life and habits of two Christian nations of the Ottoman Empire – Greeks and Armenians.
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FEATURES OF HELLENISM IN THE SPIRITUAL CULTURE OF ANCIENT ARMENIA
Gagik Sargsyan was a prominent Armenologist and expert in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. His scientific interests included several key problems of Armenian history - social-political history of ancient Armenia, Hellenism in Armenia, historicity and chronology and of Movses Khorenatsi’s "Armenian history", Pre-Mesropian Armenian historiography, the problem of Urartu-Armenia and issues of the formation of the Armenian people etc.
Below the editorial board presents full text of his report at the international conference “Eirene” (1976) which deals with the problem of the impact of Hellenism on the spiritual culture of ancient Armenia.
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Classics of Armenology2
PAUL ANTON DE LAGARDE (1827-1891)
P. de Lagarde (Paul Bötticher) was an outstanding German orientalist, philosopher and theologian whose studies until today remain as milestone for modern Orientalistics.
P. de Lagarde studied oriental languages, as well as in philosophy and theology first at the Humboldt University of Berlin (1844– 1846) then the University of Halle-Wittenberg (1846–1847). From 1869 until his death P. de Lagarde worked at the University of Göttingen as a lecturer.
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TOROS TORAMANIAN (1864-1934)
Toros Toramanian was a prominent Armenian architect, father of Armenian history of architecture.
He was born in Sebinarahisar, Western Armenia (modern Turkey). After graduating the school in his birthplace he went to Constaninople in order to continue his education. Here Toramanyan entered the Department of architecture at the Imperial gymnasium of Fine arts (1888-1893).
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ARMENIAN OFFICERS IN THE WORLD WAR I. OFFICERS OF THE ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA. 1914-1920: HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY (DOCTOR IN HISTORY A. S. VIRABYAN, CANDIDATE OF HISTORICAL SCIENCES S. S. MIRZOYAN). YEREVAN, NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF ARM
After many years of the intensive scientific research, the National Archives of Armenia has published the historical-biographical dictionary of the officers who have participated in the First World War and served in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia, where their combat path, positions held, awards, etc., were presented. Many previously unreleased documents have been put into circulation, with the help of which the biographical data of different officers has been clarified or supplemented. We should say that a large-scale research work has been carried out, which has been supported by archive specialists Gohar Avagyan, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Hayk Virabyan, Candidate of Historical Sciences, in addition to the compilers, Amatuni Virabyan, Doctor of History, and Sonya Mirzoyan, Candidate of Historical Sciences.
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THE THEORIES OF POLITOGENESIS IN EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEMS
At the end of 2022, the Institute of Oriental Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia published a rather remarkable and unique work in its kind in the field of the Armenian historiography “The Theories of Politogenesis in Evolutionary Systems”, authored by Mariam Khanzadyan, a researcher, representing this institute. The monograph was approved for publication at the scientific session of the Ancient East Department of this institute. Before publication, it was edited by Doctor of History, Professor A. V. Kosyan.
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EARLY MODERNITY AND MOBILITY PORT CITIES AND PRINTERS ACROSS THE ARMENIAN DIASPORA, 1512-1800
Yale University Press, 2023, 584 p, 11 b-w illustrations.
Early Modernity and Mobility explores the disparate yet connected histories of Armenian printing establishments in early modern Europe and Asia. From 1512, when the first Armenian printed codex appeared in Venice, to the end of the early modern period in 1800, Armenian presses operated in nineteen locations across the Armenian diaspora. Linking far-flung locations in Amsterdam, Livorno, Marseille, Saint Petersburg, and Astrakhan to New Julfa, Madras, and Calcutta, Armenian presses published a thousand editions with more than half a million printed volumes in Armenian script. Drawing on extensive archival research, Sebouh David Aslanian explores why certain books were published at certain times, how books were sold across the diaspora, who read them, and how the printed word helped fashion a new collective identity for early modern Armenians. In examining the Armenian print tradition Aslanian tells a larger story about the making of the diaspora itself. Arguing that “confessionalism” and the hardening of boundaries between the Armenian and Roman churches was the “driving engine” of Armenian book history, Aslanian makes a revisionist contribution to the early modern origins of Armenian nationalism.
FROM THE HEROIC HISTORY OF KHACHISAR (CHARDAKHLU)
Author’s Edition, Yerevan, 2022, 128 p.
The monograph represents a fundamentally new approach to the issues under discussion. It clarifies the role of the Armenian Khachisar-Chardakhlu in the annals of Armenian national heroic, particularly within the context of Utik in the North-Eastern part of Armenia and the Armenian war of freedom. It also highlights the self-defense efforts of dozens of surrounding Armenian villages. The monograph reveals the outstanding role of the heroic Khachisar-Chardakhlu in the centuries-old history of the Armenian Gardmank.
ARMENIA MARITIMA ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE OF THE LAND UDURI-ETIUNI
Publishing house of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Yerevan, 2022, 484 p.
The basin of Lake Sevan is rich in archaeological monuments: settlements, fortresses, tombs, rock paintings, dragon monuments, lithographic inscriptions. Their research began as early as the 19th century, and excavations were carried out from the beginning of the 20th century. Research shows the important role played by the region in the cultural development of the Armenian Highlands. This collection is dedicated to summarizing those works and presents the materials of the exhibition and conference of the same name. The volume is intended for both narrow professional and wide readership interested in culture and art.
THE ARMENIAN PRICE OF PEACE
Yerevan, Newmag, 2023, 304 p.
100 years ago, Armenian thought was inspired by European values. First it was socialism, now it is democracy. 100 years ago, and today, the main question remains the same: how to build relations with Russia? At the beginning of the last century, Armenians in the Ottoman, Iranian and Russian empires actively participated in future-oriented ideological discussions. The Caucasian events of 1917 showed the ideological differences of Armenian politicians and intellectuals. The role of the Caucasus was redefined. It was a part of the ancient kingdom of Armenians, therefore the territory of Armenian autonomous existence, and then also the restoration of the state. What were the expectations of the Armenian parties from the Tsarist government and then from the Bolshevik government? Why did the fate of Western Armenia divide Armenians into Leninist and Plekhanovian ideological camps? Armenians՛ ideas about the right to self-determination 100 years ago: what was changed?
BRONZE AGE III, LATE BRONZE AGE BURIALS
Publishing house of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Yerevan, 2022, 392 p.
The work is dedicated to Lori Berd, one of the prominent archeological monuments covering the Middle Bronze Age to the Achaemenid period in Armenia. The book presents 50 excavated Late Bronze Age tombs with their external and internal structure, rituals, rich artefacts, and cultural features. The appendix presents the results of the examination of human remains and bronze objects. It is intended for archaeologists, historians, cultural experts and those interested in the early history of Armenia.
THE ENDANGERED CHRISTIAN ARMENIAN HERITAGE OF ARTSAKH
Research on Armenian Architecture Foundation, Yerevan, 2022, 200 p.
This English-language book presents Artsakh’s endangered Armenian cultural heritage, exposing Azerbaijan’s policy of cultural genocide. It consists of two parts, including: a) documentary evidence proving the destruction of Armenian historical monuments in lands that have been occupied by Azerbaijan since 1991 (QR codes have been used for a more accurate presentation of the facts); b) endangered Armenian historical monuments that went into Azerbaijani control in the aftermath of the 44-day war of 2020 (these monuments are presented according to the districts where they are located: Hadrut, Karvajar, Kashatagh, Askeran, Martakert, Martuni and Shushi).
LABOR MIGRATION AND SOCIOCULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN ARMENIA
Publishing house of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Yerevan, 2023, 388 p.
Based on a broad comparative analysis of the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the book highlights the ethno-cultural and social consequences of labor migration of the Armenian population at the individual, family and society levels. The causes of labor migration, the socio-professional composition of migrants, the importance of kinship ties in the formation of these groups, the role of network migration in the preferred destinations of departure, the influence of inter-ethnic contacts on the identity, cultural and linguistic behavior of migrants are comprehensively analyzed. Migrants, moving from one system of social relations and institutions to another, a new socio-cultural environment, also export a number of elements of their national culture. The book analyzes in detail the impact of labor migration on the change of the modern family model and ethno-demographic processes. The work may be of interest to public and humanitarian specialists dealing with migration issues, state policymakers and a wide range of readers.
ARMENIAN DIASPORA IN DYNAMICS
IAE and Charles University, 2022
This publication is devoted to the analysis of historical experience and modern trends in the development of Armenians in some countries, to determine the prospects for methodological developments in their study. It consists of three parts. The first part concerns to the methodological problems of studying the Diaspora and includes articles that examine the principles of resource analysis of Diasporas and analysis of integration and relationships with the homeland and social involvement as well. The second part presents studies of the modern Armenian communities of Kuwait, Belarus, Czech Republic, Lebanon, and Cyprus, which refer to specific research issues. The third part is a historical excursus of the past of the Armenian communities of Medieval Europe, Constantinople of the 10th century, and an analysis on the cultural heritage of the Armenians of Turkey and Iran created over a thousand years.
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE Collection of Scientific Articles IV
Service for the Protection of Historical Environment and Cultural Museum-Reservations NCSO, Yerevan, 2022, 252 p.
The collection of articles includes scientific articles and reports of Armenian and foreign specialists. It is dedicated to the preservation, study, use and popularization of Armenian and world historical and cultural heritage.