Archaeology and Ethnography1
RELICS OF THE ORAL TRADITION OF THE ARTSAKH-ARMENIANS EMIGRATED TO PYATIGORSK
In the summer of 1964, the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia had sent me on an academic mission to the town of Pyatigorsk in the territory of Stavropol, Russia to study the lifestyle and folklore of the Armenian ethnic group living there.
When I arrived at Pyatigorsk, I was informed that Armenians emigrated from Karabakh (Artsakh) were living in a separate district. In those years Karabakh was inaccessible for us, the armenologist-intellectuals. The Azeri authorities did not allow the Armenian archaeologists to go there and make excavations, inasmuch as they were terrified from the fact that they would bring to light numerous and irrefutable proofs testifying that that marvelous territory, bestowed on them in 1921, was of a native Armenian origin.
But for me, as a folklorist-ethnographer, it was interesting to know when and whence they had migrated to Pyatigorsk, what changes they had undergone under the conditions of coexistence with the native people, whether they remained sincere to the traditions of their cradle, etc.
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THE EUPHRATES CONTACT ZONE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIII CENTURY BC (Before the Crisis)
Contact zones represent those geographical segments of mankind where civilizing units meet each other and cooperate in different levels. At the same time permanent contacts create economic, political, and cultural background which secures the emergence of new civilizing qualities and progress. Exactly in such zones emerged the so-called "daughter-civilizations" (or “secondary civilizations”) which by the time expanded into the "barbarian periphery". Among Near Eastern contact zones it is worth to mention that which begins from the Upper Euphrates and reaches the "Fertile crescent" in the south (the bordering territory between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq). This zone had played important role in the history of early state formations of the Armenian Highland.
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THE REACTIONS AND DECISIONS OF TRANSCAUCASIAN AND ARMENIAN PARTIES ON THE DECLARATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
As a result of various military and political developments and upheavals, the 1917 Bolshevik revolution led to the declaration of independence of Transcaucasia, and the region was confronted with the emergence of independent republics. At the height of the Turkish invasion, particularly after the fall of Kars and Alexandrapol, Bolshevik Russia was hostile towards the fact of independence of Transcaucasia, especially the emergence of independent national republics. The difficult domestic situation in Russia, the ongoing uncompromising struggle for power and the consequent unleashing of civil war did not make the sovietization of Transcaucasia possible for the moment. The best proof of that is that the government of Lenin could not or “did not want” to help the Baku commune.
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DISCUSSIONS OF THE ARMENIAN QUESTION AT THE SECOND CONGRESS OF THE COMINTERN AND THE FIRST CONGRESS OF THE PEOPLES OF THE EAST
The Bolshevik authorities initially took steps to export the revolution to European countries, but after failing they directed their attention to the East. In 1919-1920 Soviet Russia took active steps to export the “socialist revolutions” to the eastern countries. The Bolsheviks re-established ties with former Young Turkish leaders of the Ottoman Empire and with former Young Turk Mustafa Kemal who had started the nationalist movement in Turkey. The Bolsheviks pinned their hopes on the Muslim East, believing that the latter could be “revolutionized” and directed primarily against Great Britain, which led the other countries’ invasion of Russia.
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THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA IN THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE SOUTH RUSSIAN VOLUNTEER ARMY, BRITISH AND AZERI INTELLIGENCE SERVICES IN TRANSCAUCASIA IN 1918-1920
The breakthrough processes that took place in Russia led to the collapse and split of the Russian Empire, and as a result of that, the unpredictable development of historical and political processes led to the emergence of independent national statehoods in Transcaucasia. In each of them, ambiguous and contradictory functions of state system formation occurred, including, first of all, the processes of creation of armed forces and intelligence services, for which there were neither sufficient human resources, nor experience and material-and-financial means. Similar processes took place throughout the whole territory of the former Russian Empire. The first Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) appeared on the crossroads of different intelligence services (the Russian Volunteer army, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey).
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LITTLE-KNOWN RUSSIAN LITERARY FIGURES ON THE ARMENIAN QUESTION AND THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE (1910s)
The article introduces several little-known Russian literary figures who, after visiting Western Armenia and Transcaucasia, expressed their civil position regarding the Armenian question and the Genocide. Among these authors are A. Berezovsky-Olginsky, A.Kulebyakin. A.Tirkova S. Rafalovich, and P.Sibirtsev.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security1
TERRITORIAL ISSUES IN THE KARABAKH CONFLICT IN THE LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND DOCUMENTS RECOGNIZED BY THE PARTIES
“Karabakh conflict” is in the first lines of the word list of modern global political discourse. The problem is viewed differently by the conflicting parties and mediators, as well as analysts. Our task is to present an image of the conflict corresponding to the “original” in the light of the textbook facts of history and primary sources. The expertise is carried out in the format of theses on key issues of the topic stated in the title.
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Foreign Sources and Authors About Armenia and Armenians1
Documents: Armenian Genocide1
THE SWORD OF ISLAM
With the incidents surrounding the inception and progress of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 came the first warning and shadow of what might ultimately be expected in Armenia. The horrors perpetrated in Bulgaria at that time not only roused England from end to end, and shocked the sense of the civilized world, but indicated the worn and slender thread by which Christian lives and homes were protected throughout the Turkish Empire. In Armenia, which became the Asian theatre of the war, evidences of misgovernment and oppressive cruelty had already been so numerous as to prove only second in extent and volume to what had transpired in the miserable European province.
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ARMENIAN COLONIES OF UKRAINE
Extracted from Arakel Gevorg Arakelyan “The History of Spiritual Culture of Armenian People”, vol. 2, Yerevan, 1964 (pp.192-205).
A. Arakelyan was distinguished expert in Armenian and philology, author of fundamental studies which deal with Armenian philology and history - “The History of Spiritual Culture of Armenian People” in two volumes (Yerevan, 1959-1964), “Textbook of Classical Armenian” (Yerevan, 1944-1946). Among his studies is worth to mention those dedicated to the classical Greek and Roman literature - “History of Roman literature” (1956, Yerevan), “History of Greek literature” (Yerevan, 1968).
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MYSTICAL PERCEPTION OF THE BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS BY GRIGOR NAREKATSI IN THE 13TH – 18TH CENTURIES
By Dr. Vahram Lalayan
The Society for Armenian Studies (SAS) has posthumously sponsored the publication of Dr. Vahram Lalayan’s book Mystical Perception of the Book of Lamentations by Grigor Narekatsi in the 13th – 18th Centuries. Dr. Lalayan was a scholar of Armenian medieval theology and the head of the Department of History at Grigor Narekatsi University in Artsakh. He was killed by Azeri forces in Meds Tagher village in Hadrut during the 2020 war.
Mystical Perception of the Book of Lamentations was published in Armenian by Antares Press in Yerevan and deals with Narekatsi’s Book of Lamentations. Mystical Perception, edited by Lalayan’s colleague Dr. Amalya Grigoryan of Narekatsi University, consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, and a list of primary literary sources. The first chapter deals with the “Medieval Commentaries of the Book of Lamentations” and discusses the research of Poghos Khachatryan’s work on the first and fourth editions of the Book of Lamentations. The second chapter deals with the commentaries of the Book of Lamentations and analyzes the mystical interpretations.
ARMENIAN CULTURE OF VINE AND WINE
by Suren Hobosyan, Boris Gasparyan, Hasmik Harutyunyan, Ani Saratikyan, Anzhela Amirkhanyan, 437 pages
Grapes and wine have played a unique role in the centuries-old history of the Armenian people, becoming one of the important attributes shaping up its identity. The present monograph reveals the content of the long way of viticulture and wine-making in the Armenian Highlands. The issues highlighted for the respective discussion, more precisely, viticulture zones, orchards and horticulture, irrigation, wine-making instruments and its storage, are meant to dwell on the practical-economic and spiritual-ritualistic significance of grapes and wine in Armenians’ every-day life and culture, as well as to cover their reflection in folklore, folk medicine and diet. The varieties of Armenian grapes and the references of wine in folklore are discussed in further details. The monograph also comprises an extensive dictionary of respective terms. This volume, spiced with a large amount of documentary material and images, is intended for both professionals and a wide range of readers interested in culture and art.
THE ARMENIAN-POPULATED VILLAGES OF MUSH’S BULANYK PROVINCE ACCORDING TO THE LETTERS ADDRESSED TO MKRTICH I KHRIMIAN CATHOLICOS
Volume 1 By Vera Sahakyan 396 p.
The research titled “The Armenian-populated villages of Mush’s Bulanyk province according to the letters addressed to Mkrtich I First Khrimian Catholicos (Volume I) Catholicos” focuses on the study of the formation of Bulany’k Province (k’aza) of Mush and the Armenian-populated villages. The study answers the research questions such as: When and under what historical circumstances was Bulanyk’ Province formed? What is the etymology of the name? Which parts of Mets Hayq comprise the Province? Which villages were Armenian-populated during the Catholicosate of Mkrtich’ I Khrimian. Based on the files of the archive preserved in Matenadaran that cover the periods from 1893 to 1895, presently we have identified letters from 28 villages. We have digitized, annotated, and additionally translated the letters. The villages are presented alphabetically – for each village, a one- to two-page study is presented in the research.
ARCHAEOLOGY OF ARMENIA IN REGIONAL CONTEXT
Edited by Pavel Avetisyan and Arsen Bobokhyan, 2021, 432 p.
The present volume reflects recent achievements of Armenian archaeology realized by local and international specialists. It is the result of a conference dedicated to the 60th Anniversary of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, NAS RA held in Yerevan during 2019. The Institute is a multi-profile scientific organization, which conducts fundamental and applied investigations in the fields of archaeology, cultural anthropology, folklore studies, ethnosociology, epigraphy, archaeobiology, physical anthropology. As the national center of investigation of material and non-material cultural heritage, the Institute tries to provide scientific parity to the leading regional and international centers in the above-mentioned spheres.
SYRIAN ARMENIANS AND THE TURKISH FACTOR. Kessab, Aleppo and Deir ez-Zor in the Syrian War
By Marcello Mollica, Arsen Hakobyan 309 p.
The Syrian War represents one of the most important challenges the world has faced in the last years. The trajectories of its spill-overs and migrations have destabilized neighbouring countries and political relations between Middle Eastern and European countries and World Powers. This book provides a different reading of contemporary events in Syria and their roots, by reading them through the eyes of the Syrian Armenian community. It was however the involvement of the Turkish Forces in the conflict that played a major role in Syrian Armenians’ formation of war narratives. This interconnected identity, migration and war. The conflict allowed urban transformations in war actors’ attitudes towards Syrian Armenians and their past, above all the Armenian Genocide. The book will shed light on the war-related social urban changes in Kessab, Aleppo and Deir ez-Zor.
THE HISTORY OF THE WRITING CULTURE OF THE PRE-MASHTOTS ARMENIA
by Artak Movsisyan, 448 p.
This monograph is devoted to the study of the early stages of the emerging and development of the script in the Armenian highlands, the script systems used in Armenia before Mesrop Mashtots and the written monuments created by using them. The author represented both, the scripts of Armenian origin and adoptions by our ancestors. Some sections of the book are dedicated to the inscriptions left by foreigners in Armenia and the written monuments of mysterious origin and unknown meaning. The author also summarized the information about the inscriptions of local and foreign origin found in Armenia.
PERSIAN MONUMENTS OF THE MATENADARAN
Volume 5, by Kristine Kostikyan, 576 p.
This volume represents copies, originals, Armenian and English translations of 96 manifestos issued by the Qajar authorities of Iran in 1798-1829, which are kept in the Matenadaran after Mesrop Mashtots in Yerevan. In the preface of the collection the author examines the historical value of the documents for the study of Armenology and Armenian-Persian relations.
EASTERN ARMENIAN NON-FICTION LITERARY LANGUAGE (between the 60s of the 19th century and the 10s of the 21st century)
by Ashot Galstyan
The book ՛՛Eastern Armenian Non-fiction Literary Language (between the 60s of the 19th century and the 10s of the 21st century)՛՛ authored by Ashot Galstyan, is dedicated to the linguistic and stylistic examination of the genre of the non-fiction, starting from the 60s of the 19th century. until the 10s of the 21st century. The work presents the grammatical-syntactic features of non-fiction works, as well as the system of depiction-expression of the originals
Classics of Armenology2
H.Adjaryan was a prominent Armenian linguist, etymologist, lexicographer, professor of linguistics at the Yerevan State University.
He was born in Constantinople, in March 8, 1876. After studying at several primary schools in Constantinople H.Adjaryan went to Sorbonne and Strasbourg (France) where he studied modern languages. For his academic carrier had played a crucial role the outstanding French A.Meillet who had contributed much in his future studies. Exactly under the guidance of A.Meillet H.Adjaryan entered into the field of Indo-European comparative linguistics.
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Prof.Dr. J.A.C.Greppin was a distinguished linguist, expert in Indo-European linguistics and Armenian philology.
Dr.Greppin was born in April 2, 1937 in Rochester, New York. After graduating the University of Rochester he received his PhD at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1972. He taught Classical Greek and Latin at the Woodstock Country School in South Woodstock, Vermont. Later he moved to the Cleveland State University as professor (1975-2010, from 2011 - Emeritus) where continued his academic studies mostly devoted Armenian linguistics until retirement. In 1974-1975 Dr.Greppin came to Armenia and worked at the Institute of Linguistics, Armenian Academy of Sciences as a visiting scholar.
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