THE FIRST ARMENIANS IN AMERICA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD
It is difficult to determine the exact number of Armenians emigrated to America during the given period of British colonialism, since no documents have been preserved about the registration of newcomers, including that of the Armenians, till 1820.
It should be noted that the settlement of these few Armenians in America at this period is not connected with the intentional emigration to USA from the various Armenian-inhabited regions in the subsequent years; they were merely individuals outside the main stream of emigrants.
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LES FAMILLES ARISTOCRATIQES D’ALBANIE ET DES REGIONS ORIENTALES D’ARMENIE D’APRÈS LES SOURCES ARMÉNIENNES ET BYZANTINES
Après la chute du royaume des Archakides en 428, les Sassanides intégrèrent les provinces d’Arc’akh et d’Outiq du nord-est de Grande Arménie au sein d’une nouvelle province (marzpanate), qui a reçu le nom d’Albanie (Ałuanq, Aran, Ran, Rani) inspirée du nom du royaume d’Albanie, qui a existé dès le début Ier siècle avant JC et qui se trouvait au nord du fleuve Koura jusqu’à la chaîne de montagnes du Caucase et la mer Caspienne. Ensuite, jusqu’à la fin du Vème siècle, ce nom a englobé aussi l’Arc’akh et l’Outiq arménien sur la rive droite de la Koura. Les arabes ont maintenu cette organisation administrative cependant, à l’époque de l’affaiblissement du Califat, ils mirent en place de puissants pouvoirs dans les régions orientales d’Arménie qui, à la fin du IXème siècle étaient intégrées au royaume des Bagratouni. L’un des plus importants d’entre eux était Khatchēn: au centre de la province d’Arc’akh. Suivant l’interprétation des sources disponibles, sa dynastie régente était originaire du pouvoir médiéval du nom de Tsavdēac’i mais avait déjà leur propre nom: Aranchahik.
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ON THE ISSUE OF THE CENTER OF SATRAPIC ARMENIA
In the period of Achaemenid domination the issue of the center of Satrapic Armenia continues to be a controversial issue even nowadays. Recent studies have shown that during VI-IV BC Armenia was not divided into two Satrapies - the XIII and the XVIII. The XIII satrapy corresponded to Armenia, and the XVIII satrapy was located between the Greater Caucasus and the River Kura).
In the article we have demonstrated that the administrative center (capital city) of Satrapic Armenia was the city of Van, which was probably also one of the residences of the Achaemenid "Great kings". As to Armavir being the center of the satrapy, after 331 BC it again became the military-political center of the independent Armenian State.
Armavir had as vital economic importance for Satrapic Armenia like that of Susa for Achaemenids.
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THE 1921 RUSSIAN-TURKISH CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW: 100-YEARS AGO: A RETROSPECT
When we look back at the events that occurred 100 years ago and draw parallels to the present, we come to the conclusion that the Armenian public mind should no longer have any faith in the plans of “great” diplomats for the “salvation” of the Armenian people. Moreover, we must realize that the propaganda of historical justice is unnecessary where the solution of the national issue is in fact conditioned by the realistic interests of the world’s powerful. From this point of view the Soviet-Turkish treaty of “Friendship and Brotherhood” signed in Moscow on March 16, 1921 is remarkable. It will give an idea of how the Armenian-Turkish border was drawn at the 1921 Moscow conference.
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REVEALING THE KHAN TEKINSKY CONSPIRACY
In the article are revealed the efforts of Armenian counterintelligence in its struggle against the Azerbaijani secret services which were aimed at destabilizing the state structures and economy of the Republic of Armenia in 1918-1920. The Armenian counterintelligence was able to secure the internal peace of the country, neutralize the Muslim uprisings in the territory of RA and solve the most important security issues in general.
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ON THE MAIN EPISODES OF THE EPIC POEM ABOUT ARMENIAN-ARAB ALLIANCE
The most famous Armenian epic poem, “Daredevils of Sassoun” (“Sasna Tsrer”), is a folk heroic poem about the centuries-old conflict between Christian Armenians and idolater Arabs. In contrast, there was another epic poem in which Armenians and Arabs acted as allies. During the Soviet period the study of this epic poem remained in the shadows, as its main character was a real historical figure, the Armenian Catholicos of that time.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security3
ARMENIA – IRAQ: BUILDING RELATIONS IN REGIONAL TURMOIL
Iraq is the closest Arab country to Armenia. From Agarak, the southernmost city of Armenia, to Haji Umran in Iraq is around 400 kilometers. In the recent decade, the relations between Armenia and Iraq are developing quite intensely, involving various fields of cooperation. This article is an attempt to discuss the relations between the two countries since the independence of the Republic of Armenia declared in 1991. In this study, I argue that Armenia-Iraq relations have been greatly affected by the regional situation in and around Iraq. This paper also represents how Iraq has become one of the largest trade partners of Armenia.
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THE WAR CRIMES AND GENOCIDAL POLICY OF AZERBAIJAN DURING THE SECOND ARTSAKH WAR AND THE INTERNATIONAL REACTIONS
During the second Karabagh war were registered many war crimes committed by Azerbaijan, which primarily were directed against the civilian population of Artsakh. Azerbaijan carried out ethnic cleansing during the war and continues its policy of cultural genocide after the war. However, no international organization takes practical steps to preserve the Armenian cultural heritage, instead, Azerbaijan continues to destroy and falsify Armenian monuments.
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THE PRINCIPLE OF DECENTRALIZATION OF GOVERNANCE IN SIMON ZAVARYAN’S POLITICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPT
Simon Zavaryan’s political optimism, certainly, clashed with further harsh historical and political realities. The model of federal state proposed by him corresponded to neither the tendencies of Turkish policy nor the Turkish understanding of Ottomanism as citizenship. The Turkish element, which had occupied the homeland of the indigenous peoples, chose to and still continues to implement the policy of national and religious intolerance, endangering the foundations of the statehood they themselves had envisaged.
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Demography and Governance1
PROBLEMS OF CIVILIZATIONAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
In order to discover the patterns of development of nature and society and to apply them in practice, as well as to meet the needs of people and to provide a secure environment, there was an objective necessity for the development of human civilization with the components of culture, science, production, political science and state management.
Logically and based on historical experience, the security of the statehood of each country (people) and the efficiency of public administration are conditioned by the ratio of the degree of development of political and state administrative thought to the level of civilization achieved. If the former is inferior to the latter, the efficiency of public administration significantly decreases; the statehood and the destiny of the people and the possibility of them living safely in their homeland are endangered under the influence of that factor. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the increase of public administration efficiency, in particular, to introduce scientific principles in the system of state and local self-government, to develop the political culture of the society and the level of analytical thinking, to attach essential importance to the training of personnel in the fields of political science, diplomacy and international law and to conducting scientific research in those areas with the aim of using the results obtained while making strategic management decisions, to strictly clarify the distribution of power between the branches of government, enshrining in the constitution the necessary counterbalances and checks.
In conditions of globalization the so-called deep state is a guarantee of the security of statehood and effective governance, a factor guiding and counterbalancing the activities of civil society. In the Republic of Armenia this role can be claimed by the Armenian Apostolic Church, the intellectual and mature business elite, the high-ranking officers of the army and the National Security Service which must undertake their patriotic mission as a tradition.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide1
ARMENIA AND ITS SORROWS, LONDON, 1896
The Chapters V-VII of the book describes the atrocities against Armenians in the Ottoman empire in 1890s, particularly in regard to the population of Sassoun and Mush based on eyewitnesses, both Armenian and foreign.
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Foreign Sources and Authors About Armenia and Armenians1
JOURNEY THROUGH ASIA MINOR, ARMENIA AND KOORDISTAN IN THE YEARS 1813 AND 1814
Journey Through Asia Minor, Armenia, and Koordistan, in the years 1813 and 1814; with remarks on the Marches of Alexander, and retreat of Ten Thousand, London: John Murray, Albemarle-Street, 1818 (pp.343-435) .
The extracted passages from captain J.M.Kinneir’s memories describe his journey through western Armenia, from Trebisond to Mardin, at the year of 1814.
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ON THE CULT OF MIHR IN ARMENIA
Kamilla Trever was a prominent Russian and Soviet Orientalist, historian, numismatist, who specialized on the Caucasus, Central Asia and Iran. She is the author of several monograps like “Sassanid Metal”, Moscow-Leningrad, 1935 (co-author I.A.Orbeli), “Monuments of Greco-Bactrian Art, 1940”, «Essays on the history and culture of Caucasian Albania in the IV century BC — VII century AD», Leningrad, 1959, “Sassanian silver. Collection of State Hermitage”, Leningrad, 1987 (co-author V.Lukonin, published posthumously) and about 100 articles.
K.Trever’s «Essays on the history and culture of ancient Armenia (II century BC – IV century AD)”, Leningrad, 1953 (in Russian) is a fundamental study where the author discusses crucial problems of Armenia of Classical period, particularly those connected with the pagan temple at Garni. The second part of her study deals with ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions found during excavations in different parts of Armenia.
Below is introduced the chapter from this study dealing with the cult of Mihr, one of the supreme gods of ancient Armenian pagan religion (77-95).
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Classics of Armenology2
JOSEF MARKWART (1864- 1930)
Jozef Markwart was a prominent German orientalist, an expert in the history, philology, geography, and ethnology of the Middle East, whose contribution into Armenology cannot be overestimated.
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HAKOVBOS TASHYAN (1866-1933)
H.Tashyan (Franciscos Melqon Tashchyan) was prominent Armenian philologist, an expert in medieval Armenian manuscripts, ancient and modern history.
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Gegham Hovhannisyan, ARPIAR ARPIARYAN: SOCIO-POLITICAL VIEWS AND ACTIVITIES
Yerevan, Institute of History of NAS RA, 2019, 265 pages.
In the series of books “Arch. Mesrob Ashjian” the Institute of History of NAS RA has published the research work “Arpiar Arpiaryan: Socio-political Views And Activities” by G. Hovhannisyan, which is dedicated to the life and activity of Arpiar Arpiaryan (1851-1908), a publicist, a prominent figure of the Armenian liberation movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was one of thօse brilliant figures of Armenian intelligentsia, who had a profound impact not only on literary, but also on social and political spheres. A. Arpiaryan belonged to the generation of prominent figures of the time like Kh. Abovyan, M. Nalbandyan, Raffi, M. Khrimyan and others who made their mark on Armenian social and political life. Thus, it is not accidental that a number of researchers have referred to his activities, have covered different areas of A. Arpiaryan’s work, and G. Hovhannisyan’s work under discussion is a unique summary of A. Arpiaryan’s social and political activity.
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Alexandr Sargsyan, PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES OF MILITARY INTELLIGENCE
Training Manual, Yerevan, Lusabats Publishing House, 2013, 83 pages.
Alexander Sargsyan, a participant in the Artsakh Liberation War and an awarded police colonel, authored the textbook ՛՛Psychological Problems of Military Intelligence.՛՛
The booklet is valuable as the author participated in the Artsakh war and his research is based on his and his comrade-in-arms՛ military experience. In July 1992, when the Azerbaijan armed units and the Soviet former military launched a large-scale attack, A. Sargsyan and his squad were surrounded, and willingly or unwillingly he was forced to do disruptive-reconnaissance operations in the enemy՛s rear. It must be stated that nowadays little research is available that combines theoretical and practical knowledge.
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Ashot Melkonyan, Historical research
The book includes the author՛s published articles in various scientific journals and reports represented at conferences during the last decade. The materials refer to the Armenian Genocide, statehood, national liberation movements, history of demography and other issues. The book is intended for a wide range of scholars and readers.
ARMENIANS AND KURDS IN THE LATE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
The Press at California State University, 158 pages: Edited by Ara Sarafian and Ümit Kurt
Armenians and Kurds in the Late Ottoman Empire is represented by five original articles, which were first submitted at a conference entitled “Armenians, Greeks, and Kurds: A People’s History of the Ottoman Empire” organized by Prof. Barlow Der Mugrdechian of the Armenian Studies Program and by Dr. Ümit Kurt. The conference was held at Fresno State on September 22-23, 2017 and was supported by a grant from the Thomas A. Kooyumjian Family Foundation. The book, edited by Ara Sarafian and Dr. Ümit Kurt, is a seminal work in the field of Ottoman history. The volume explores the relationship between Turks, Armenians, and Kurds, and brings a new understanding to the dynamics that shaped these interactions. The first three articles focus on the Hamidian massacres of 1895-1896. They track societal changes to better explain the Hamidian massacres in Cilicia, Aintab, and the bishoprics of Aghtamar.
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THE RESISTANCE NETWORK: THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND HUMANITARIANISM IN OTTOMAN SYRIA, 1915–1918 (ARMENIAN HISTORY, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE)
The Resistance Network is the history of an underground network of humanitarians, missionaries, and diplomats in Ottoman Syria who helped save the lives of thousands during the Armenian Genocide. Khatchig Mouradian challenges depictions of Armenians as passive victims of violence and subjects of humanitarianism, demonstrating the key role they played in organizing a humanitarian resistance against the destruction of their people. Piecing together hundreds of accounts, official documents, and missionary records, Mouradian presents a social history of genocide and resistance in wartime Aleppo and a network of transit and concentration camps stretching from Bab to Ras ul-Ain and Der Zor. He ultimately argues that, despite the violent and systematic mechanisms of control and destruction in the cities, concentration camps, and massacre sites in this region, the genocide of the Armenians did not progress unhindered - unarmed resistance proved an important factor in saving countless lives.
KNOWING ABOUT GENOCIDE: ARMENIAN SUFFERING AND EPISTEMIC STRUGGLES, 1ST EDITION, JOACHIM J. SAVELSBERG
University of California Press, Illustrations: 17 illustrations, 1 map, 7 tables, Pages: 264
How do victims and perpetrators generate conflicting knowledge about genocide? Using a sociology of knowledge approach, Savelsberg answers this question for the Armenian genocide committed in the context of the First World War. Focusing on Armenians and Turks, he examines strategies of silencing, denial, and acknowledgment in everyday interaction, public rituals, law, and politics. Drawing on interviews, ethnographic accounts, documents, and eyewitness testimony, Savelsberg illuminates the social processes that drive dueling versions of history. He reveals counterproductive consequences of denial in an age of human rights hegemony, with implications for populist disinformation campaigns against overwhelming evidence.
THE ARMENIANS OF MUSA DAGH: FROM OBSCURITY TO GENOCIDE RESISTANCE AND FAME
By Vahram L. Shemmassian. The Press at California State University, 555 pages
The Armenians of Musa Dagh: From Obscurity to Genocide Resistance and Fame 1840-1915 is a comprehensive history of the people of Musa Dagh, who rose to prominence with their resistance to the Genocide in 1915. Vahram L. Shemmassian has presented a thorough analysis of the social, economic, religious, educational, and political history of the six villages which constituted Armenian Musa Dagh. His work focuses on the important period of the mid-nineteenth to the early twentieth century, offering the reader a previously unavailable insight into the people whose courage and persistence ultimately led to their successful self-defense. Shemmassian, whose roots go back to Musa Dagh, for the first time in English provides a clear view of the complex multi-faceted history of the region. The book demonstrates that this was a period of great change, during which the Musa Dagh Armenians transitioned from an isolated and largely unknown people to a collectivity that prepared to defend its national identity and rights against an increasingly discriminatory and oppressive Ottoman Empire. Shemmassian’s work reveals much information which has been uncovered for the first time, based on primary sources. This fascinating story is a must read.
The book has been published as Volume 11 in the Armenian Series of The Press at California State University, Fresno and is supplied with maps, tables, illustrations and photos. General Editor of the Armenian Series: Barlow Der Mugrdechian.
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UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF CHRISTAPOR MIKAELIAN
THE FEBRUARY 1921 ANTI-BOLSHEVIK REBELLION IN ARMENIA
SHUSHANAVANK, MONASTERY OF BAGARAN
ARAMAZD: ARMENIAN JOURNAL OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES
ANNEXATION OF ARMENIAN TERRITORIES TO TURKEY AND SOVIET AZERBAIJAN IN THE 1920–1930S
Karen H. Khachatryan, Hamo K. Sukiasyan, Gegham M. Badalyan, 187 pages + 1 inset + 2 maps publisher L. Muradyan
In the book, on the basis of the many-sided research of archival documents and materials, scientific and historical literature are presented the territorial losses of both Soviet Armenia and NKAR. For the first time in the Armenian historiography it is system presented the policy of the Communist Party and Soviet governmental bodies in formation of the borders in 1920–1930’s, including the process of forcible annexation of native Armenian lands to Turkey and Soviet Azerbaijan.